Many people believe that the use of hemp subspecies (sativa and indica) only has a positive effect on humans. This opinion is a big misconception, because the composition of these plants includes a significant amount of various narcotic substances, which have a significant negative effect with regular consumption.
Medical use, about which many have heard, in some cases leads to a positive effect, but it is allowed only in some countries (not in Russia) and only by prescription.
Hemp: plant features
Hemp (cannabis) is an annual separate dioecious plant of the hemp family. The height of the adult specimen is at least 40 cm and can reach 4 meters. The mother is a female, and the male is male. Pollination occurs in a cross way. Monoecious hemp and hermaphrodite exist, but they are used in the agricultural sector and do not have a narcotic effect.
Male and female individuals differ in many ways:
The structure of flowers is also different, in fact, which are organs of sexual reproduction.
Female plants have a longer vegetation period (40-50 days), and male individuals mature 50-60 days after the flowers open. The difference in these terms makes it difficult to harvest the machinery, so male seedlings are harvested mainly by hand.
The plant has three subspecies:
- Indica – Indian hemp (indica);
- Sativa – sativa;
- Ruderalis – hemp.
It is the first two options that are of value to drug addicts.
What is sativa
This is a sowing, technical crop. It differs from the weedy lack of autoflowering and an increased content of psychoactive components in a number of varieties. It has varieties with a very low content of narcotic components.
In a number of countries it is used as an industrial culture for the production of oil (from seeds), ropes, ropes, canvas, burlap. From waste make tow, oilcake.
What is indica
This is Indian hemp. Fast-growing, low, branched and unpretentious plant. Officially used in medicine. This species is characterized by a high content of psychoactive components.
What do sativa and indica have in common
They are subspecies of hemp. Freely cross among themselves. These plants are the basis for breeding hybrids.
Cannabis subspecies have significant differences in many ways:
- content of psychoactive substances;
- flowering period;
- growth rate;
- climatic conditions for growth;
- scope of legal application;
- psychotropic effects on the human body;
- chemical composition.
According to scientists, hemp arose and began to be cultivated in the center of Asia, from where it moved to the Balkans, western and southern parts of Asia. The difference in the use of cannabis at a later time divided the culture into two main types. In Europe, cannabis was used as a technological culture. They made fabric, hemp, canvas and oil from it.
In the south and east of Asia, the psychotropic properties of hemp were used in rituals. The mountain system of the Himalayas acted as a barrier to the mixing of species, which for several centuries contributed to the separate cultivation of cannabis.
Sativa’s natural habitat is the hot climate of the equator and the tropics. Indica comes from mountainous regions.
Most of the varieties of indica grow in Nepal, Central Asia, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, North Africa, Tibet, Morocco, Afghanistan, Iran and North India.
Sativa hails from hot countries such as Mexico, Thailand, Colombia, Jamaica, South India, Nigeria and other countries with an equatorial and tropical climate.
Appearance and flowering period
The appearance of sativa and indica varies significantly, which is noticeable even with the naked eye.
Differences between hemp subspecies:
- Height. Indica is an average plant, usually no more than a meter long, in rare cases it reaches 120 cm. Sativa with deep roots (up to 2 meters) grows at least 1.5 meters, and in some cases 6 meters.
- Leaves. In indica, they are dense, large, clearly expressed dark green or blue-green. Sativa’s foliage is narrow and long.
- Height. Indica actively develops during flowering, becoming twice as high. Sativa grows constantly, slowing down a bit during flowering.
- Bushiness. Indica is a lush and branched plant resembling spruce in shape. Sativa is a slender plant.
- Inflorescences. The indica inflorescences are heavy, dense and fragrant, growing into dense cones. Located throughout the stem at an equal distance. Sativa has large buds, but with a small density of inflorescences.
- The period of flowering and ripening. Indica blooms in June-August, this period is 45-60 days (in the case of auto flowering – even less). Belongs to quickly ripening grades. Sativa begins to bloom in late August or September. It takes a long time for it to mature, sometimes up to 4-5 months.
Psychotropic effects on the body
Subspecies differ not only in appearance, but also in the action on the human body.
Sativa affects the consciousness and mood of a person:
- gives strength;
- promotes creativity, creativity;
- promotes outdoor activities;
- improves mood;
- is used instead of energy;
- removes from depression.
Indica also affects braking processes more:
- causes drowsiness;
- enhances sensory sensations;
- causes a strong appetite at the end of exposure;
- used as sleeping pills.
Physiological effects on the body
When cannabis is used, in addition to the psychotropic effects, there is an effect on physiology:
- redness of the eye proteins;
- decrease in intraocular pressure;
- dry mouth;
- feeling of cold or heat;
- muscle relaxation;
- lowering blood pressure;
- increased frequency of breaths;
- deterioration of short-term memory;
- lack of coordination;
- decreased attention span;
Harm to sativa and indica for health
In many countries they are recognized as narcotic plants.
Health hazards with regular use:
- sexual dysfunction in men;
- decreased general immunity;
- a significant decrease in reaction, which is very dangerous when driving a car;
- increased risk of psychosis;
- increased likelihood of gum disease;
- high risk of acute memory loss;
- in the presence of a genetic predisposition, an increased risk of depression;
- pathology of the respiratory system (from cough to emphysema);
- increased risk of infections of the throat;
- DNA damage, leading to an increased likelihood of developing cancer;
- increased risk of severe vomiting;
- decrease in intelligence;
- high probability of testicular cancer;
- with hepatitis C, an increase in the possibility of developing liver fibrosis and the appearance of scars on its tissue;
- when combined with smoking, increased risk of cancer;
- the occurrence of problems with the menstrual period in women;
- the appearance of physical and mental addictions;
- oxygen starvation of the brain.
The use of cannabis during pregnancy leads to the birth of a child with a small weight, weakly expressed reflexes and a high probability of mental disorders. This should be remembered by those who are preparing to become a mother.
Doctors remind that hemp is a starting drug. Once you become addicted to cannabis, there is a high probability of switching to heavier drugs.
Despite the fact that indica and sativa are close relatives, their psychotic effects on humans vary greatly, due to the chemical composition.
When used regularly, drug components in cannabis are addictive and lead to poor health, both mental and somatic.