Conception of a child is a very responsible and difficult process. He is not visible to the eye, therefore, it is impossible to control, but it is quite possible to influence him with the help of external influences. Unfortunately, often we are talking about the negative impact on germ cells and other structures directly involved in fertilization.
The most common negative impact options are bad habits: drinking and smoking. The harm of alcohol is undeniable for many, but smoking is much simpler and does not connect it with the appearance of problems with conceiving a child. Nevertheless, there is such a relationship, and smoking affects the reproductive function of not only women, but also men.
If a woman smokes
Nicotine and harmful substances contained in tobacco smoke affect the whole body. They do not bypass the organs of the reproductive system. In general, women who smoke more often have problems of the gynecological plan, which cannot but affect the ability to conceive.
Smoking prevents conception not directly, but indirectly, causing changes in the work of the female reproductive system. So, for example, in women who smoke, the viscosity of cervical mucus increases. When the mucus on the cervix becomes very dense and viscous, spermatozoa cannot move through it and simply do not enter the uterus, so conception of a baby becomes problematic.
Smoking affects the quality of the eggs. As you know, the stock of eggs is present in the body of a woman from birth, and all the negative factors that act from outside can provoke changes at the cellular level. The eggs of a smoking woman very often become incapable of maturation and fertilization. In addition, the process of egg maturation and release is disrupted. This process is controlled by hormones, but smoking can cause hormonal changes.
In addition to the process of maturation and release of the egg, for pregnancy to occur, it is necessary that the inner layer of the uterus be ready for implantation of the embryo. This requires that the female organs are well supplied with blood. Smoking has a negative effect on the functioning of blood vessels, so with the implantation and further nutrition of the embryo, big problems can also arise.
Moreover, even if the expectant mother does not smoke herself, but there are smokers in the family and she regularly inhales tobacco smoke, the same changes occur in her body as with active smoking. By the way, changes in the body that interfere with the natural onset of pregnancy can interfere with the use of assisted reproductive technologies. With IVF and ICSI, smoking women are much more likely to fail.
If a man smokes
Male reproductive cells are constantly updated, and this fact allows many to think that future negative fathers are not afraid of any negative influences. However, smoking also interferes with the normal conception of the father.
Under the influence of nicotine and other harmful substances, the quality of seminal fluid deteriorates. It becomes more viscous, sperm – less mobile. In general, the viability of sperm becomes less, so the chances of a successful conception of a child are reduced significantly.
In addition, due to the effect of nicotine on blood vessels, erectile function may be impaired. The hormonal background also changes, and this, in turn, entails violations in the process of developing male reproductive cells.
Problems with conceiving a child that arise as a result of smoking a man can be associated not only with the ability to fertilize, but also with the quality of the seed. Nicotine and harmful impurities of tobacco smoke cause various mutations in the cells, so smoking fathers are more likely to fertilize an egg with a damaged sperm. Depending on the nature of the changes in the cell, the embryo may immediately turn out to be non-viable, and may continue to develop with various defects. It is proved that parents with smoking are more likely to have children with developmental disabilities or congenital diseases.
Thus, smoking affects the conception of a child both through the body of a future mother and through the body of a future father. To conceive a healthy child, each parent should abandon a bad habit. It does not matter if there is an opportunity for natural conception, or whether the couple will have to use reproductive technologies. In both cases, it is possible to conceive a child only with good health of both parents and good quality of genetic material, that is, male and female germ cells. It is very important that both partners stop smoking, because if one continues to maintain a bad habit, passive smoking of the other will also destroy his body and interfere with conception.